Lung Cancer Treatments and Procedures
Lung Cancer Treatments and Procedures Lung cancer is an uncontrolled growth of cells that begin in the lungs. Usually, lung cancer starts in the cells that align the air passages. Instead of developing into healthy lung tissue, the cells quickly divide and form tumors. Lung cancer can grow and spread through the lungs to reach other parts of the body through metastasis. Lung cancers can begin in any part of the lung, but 90% of lung cancers begin in epithelial cells, which are the cells that border the larger and smaller airways also Called Bronchi and bronchioles.
This is the reason why lung cancers are sometimes referred to as bronchogéniques cancers or bronchogéniques carcinomas. Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, in men and women. It is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide.
Lung cancer: causes and risk factors
Long-term smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. After smoking, genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, second-hand smoke or other forms of air pollution can increase the risk of lung cancer.
Types of lung cancer
There are two main types of lung cancer based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope:
- Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): This is a generic term for several types of lung cancers that behave the same way, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and wide cell carcinoma.
- Small cell lung cancer (CSCC): This type of lung cancer occurs mainly in heavy smokers and it is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
Stages of lung cancer
It is necessary to determine the stage of lung cancer by discovering the extent to which cancer has spread, before initiating the treatment of lung cancer.
Here are the four stages of NSCLC lung cancer:
- Stage 1 Lung Cancer: Cancer is limited to lung cancer Lung
- Stage 2: Cancer has spread to the next lymph cancer of the
- Stage 3 lung: (3a) cancer is in the lung and lymph nodes located on the same side (3b) cancer is in the Lung and spread to the lymph nodes in front of Side
- Stage 4 lung cancer: cancer has spread both the lungs and other organs and surrounding tissues
Here are the two stages of CSCC lung cancer:
- limited stage: Cancer is present in a single lung and lymph nodes on the same side of cancer.
- Extensive stage: cancer has spread throughout the lung or both lungs, to the lymph nodes on the opposite side, to the bone marrow and to the distant organs.
After the determination of the phase, the treatment of lung cancer begins with the choice of the best suitable option for the patient. However, there is usually no treatment for lung cancer. The patient is often given a combination of therapies and palliative care.
Symptoms of lung cancer
The symptoms of lung cancer may vary, depending on where and how the tumor is spread. A person with lung cancer may have the following lung cancer symptoms:
- Persistent or chronic coughing inflammation in chest, shoulder or back pain during respiration and shortness of breath or the alternation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia or respiratory infections as well as blood in the sputum and cough Symptoms of lung cancer in step 3 include: General Wheezingdouleur in the chest or breathing persistent cough with or without voice Loss of blood unaltered by unplanned weight Appetite fever, headache, weakness, and bone marrow pain
Before preparing a plan for the treatment of lung cancer, the surgeon advised some tests to carry out a thorough diagnosis. To begin with the diagnosis of lung cancer, the doctor first performs a series of physical exams, which may include a breast examination, blood analysis in sputum, and others.
Then, some common techniques such as chest x-ray, bronchoscopy, CT, MRI, pet analysis, fine needle aspiration (a type of biopsy) and molecular tests can be used to diagnose the type of lung cancer as well as the stage and extent of cancer. The best hospitals for the treatment of lung cancer have all the necessary facilities for the correct diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Once the diagnosis is made and the stage of cancer has been identified, the doctor can prepare a plan for the treatment of lung cancer. It can include surgery, followed by a few cycles of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
The selection of specific treatment modalities will depend on the stage of cancer, the availability of the facilities and the overall health of the patient. This is the reason why a patient has to choose the best lung cancer hospital so that all the facilities can be available under a single roof.
Follow the steps below if lung cancer surgery has been programmed:
- Stop taking anticoagulant medications, herbal supplements, and vitamin E supplements.
- Stop smoking.
- Prepare a recovery plan and make arrangements at home that will improve your recovery.
- Talk to your doctor about breathing exercises you need to do after surgery.
- Avoid wearing makeup, dentures and contact lenses at the hospital on the day of operation.
- Read and sign the consent form given to you before the administration of the anesthesia.
Read more: New Lung Cancer Treatment Breakthrough
How it is executed
The treatment of lung cancer may include the following modalities:
Surgery is the best treatment if lung cancer is in its early stages. In the early stages, it is possible to completely cure a patient by removing the tumor and lymph nodes nearby. But after cancer has spread, it is almost impossible to remove all cancer cells using surgery.
There are certain specific types of surgical procedures for different locations and types of lung cancers, such as lung resection (ablation of a portion of a lobe), lobectomy (ablation of a lobe), Pneurectomie (ablation of a lung Whole) and lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph nodes in the region of the lungs). After surgery, margin tissues are studied to see if the cancer cells are present or not.
Lung cancer surgery is an important surgical procedure requiring hospitalization, general anesthesia and follow-up for a few weeks to several months. It also has side effects like any other surgery, including complications related to bleeding, infection and general anesthesia.
This treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to destroy or reduce lung cancer tumors. Radiotherapy may be administered in curative, palliative or adjuvant therapy combined with surgery or chemotherapy.
Radiotherapy damages the molecules that make up the cancer cells. However, it can damage normal and healthy tissues. But nowadays, improved technology can focus radiation on specific locations for certain lengths of time, reducing the risk of damage to surrounding healthy tissues.
Chemotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer:
Chemotherapy is a strong drug treatment, which interferes with the cell division process and damages proteins or DNA to reduce cancer cells. NSCLC and CSCC, both types of lung cancer can be treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be administered in the form of pills, intravenous infusion or combination of both.
Read more: Signs of Lung Cancer in Women
Lung Cancer Treatments and Procedures
However, medications used in chemotherapy also kill normally divide cells into the body that can lead to unpleasant side effects. Some of the frequent side effects of chemotherapy are vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, hair loss, fatigue, anemia, infections and more. These side effects can be felt temporarily during treatment, and several medications exist to help patients cope with the symptoms.
Targeted drug therapy:
The medications used in this treatment by targeting specific abnormalities in cancer cells. Some of the medications in this treatment can also enhance the activity of the immune system against cancer cells. But especially this treatment only works in people whose cancer cells show some genetic mutations.